1-1. Verification of the fat burning promotion effect of ginseng using an exhalation-gas analyzer
Subject： 6 women (average age of 20 years old)
Measurement condition： The experiment was carried out in a room environment with a temperature of 22-24 °C and a humidity of 11-40%. After entering the room, the subject was asked to keep at rest (being awake in a sitting position). After 10 minutes from starting at rest, the subject ingested the prescribed food (a dehydrated soup purchased at a store: energy 16 kcal, protein 0.8 g, lipid 0.8 g, carbohydrate 1.7 g, salt equivalent 1.4 g) with or without 0.8 g of ginseng mixed with it. This was repeated at the interval of at least one week by one subject at one time. 15 minutes after the ingestion of a test food, the energy metabolism after keeping at rest for 10 minutes was measured using a portable gas monitor (AR-10, ARCO SYSTEM). The respiratory quotient (RQ), oxygen consumption (VO2) and carbon dioxide output (VCO2) were measured in the expired gas analysis.
1-2. Collection of the basic data on daily activities using an accelerometer device
Subjects： 8 women (average age of 20 years old)
Measurement condition： Kenz Life Coder GS4 sec. version (SUZUKEN) (width 7.2 cm, height 4.2 cm, thickness 2.9 cm, weight 45 g, with hooks to attach) was attached to the waist of the subject. The daily activities were carried out as usual for 10 days from Friday to the next Sunday (after wakening up in the morning to bathing at night), and the activity amount was measured. The daily activity amount was analyzed based on the amount of time for moderate exercise and the number of steps, using a Lifelyzer 05 Coach software (SUZUKEN).
【Results and Discussion】
1-1. Effects of ginseng on body lipid metabolism (burning)
The time-based graphs for the transition of respiratory quotient (RQ), oxygen consumption (VO2) and carbon dioxide emission (VCO2) of 6 subjects were obtained by the measurement. These were measured using an expiration gas analyzer, 5-10 minutes after the ingestion of a prescribed food with or without 0.8 g of ginseng mixed in it. The values of VO2 and VCO2 showed relatively large fluctuation during the measurement regardless of with or without ingestion of ginseng, probably due to the correlated fluctuation in the amounts of oxygen consumptions and carbon dioxide emissions.
On the other hand, the RQ value was observed to be almost steady regardless of with or without the ingestion of ginseng. H owever, among the 6 subjects, 3 subjects who ingested ginseng showed the lower RQ values through the whole measurement time. For the remaining 3 subjects, their RQ values were observed to stay at the same level, but sometimes exceed the initial level.
Table 1 summarizes the relative volatility of the average RQ value during measurement of the metabolism while at rest (the relative RQ value when ginseng was ingested, where the RQ value without ingestion of ginseng is set as 100%). The mean value of relative volatility for the 6 subjects were 96.4%, with the maximum of 103.4% and the minimum of 87.6%. While it can be said that the decrease of RQ value due to ingestion of ginseng was not statistically significant since the standard deviation of the mean value was 7.3%, the tendency of ginseng ingestion to decrease RQ value was indicated in consideration of the a fore-mentioned maximum and minimum values.
The theoretical RQ value is 0.7 when fat is burned in the body and it is 1.0 in case of sugar. The RQ value fluctuated between these values. This time, the tendency that RQ value is lowered by ingestion of ginseng was observed in the subjects, which suggests the possibility that ingestion of ginseng may promote the burning of fat when the subject is at rest. The effect of ginseng on promoting fat burning in humans is expected to be verified in the future by increasing the number of subjects and proceeding with further experiment.
1-2. Collection of the basic data of daily activities using an accelerometer device
Table 2 shows the results of daily activity amount and body indexes for 10 days (6 weekdays and 4 holidays) of the 8 subjects. Although clear correlation was not observed between BMI and daily activity amount, more correlation with BMI was indicated in the number of steps than in activity time.